In 2016, a RePORT International internal small grant program funded two cross-consortium projects that were intended to study important TB-related topics while also working out the logistical details of data and specimen sharing for collaborative science. The two funded projects are briefly described below.
The prospective profiling of eicosanoid and inflammatory balance in TB diabetes proposal will be led by Alexander Pym of Africa Health Research Institute (AHRI), South Africa and Bruno Andrade of Fundação para o Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico em Saúde, (FIOTEC), Brazil.
Diabetes (DM) and HIV infection are among the most significant acquired tuberculosis (TB) risks factors. These co-morbidities increase the risk of developing active TB and adverse treatment outcomes. Although specific abnormalities have been described in patients with TBDM, the biological basis of the increased risk of active TB in DM is largely unknown. Lipid mediators such as eicosanoids have been described to play important roles in both TB and DM pathogenesis in experimental and clinical settings. However, most of the studies assessing eicosanoid expression in TB, DM, or HIV have employed focused approaches measuring a few pre-selected analytes in cross-sectional settings. This current study will evaluate the differential expression of the eicosanoid pathways by employing prospective, less biased, high-throughput assays with simultaneous quantification of several lipid mediators in patients from two distinct cohorts from Brazil and South Africa RePORT site.
The transcriptional tignature of TB in advanced HIV proposal will be led by Valeria Rolla of National Institute of Infectious Diseases Evandro Chagas, Brazil and Vidya Mave of BJ Government Medical College, India.
Additional discovery and validation studies are still needed to obtain a TB risk signature in HIV-infected people with advanced disease who have the highest risk of progressing to TB disease. Therefore the goal of the present application between RePORT Brazil and RePORT India is to recruit HIV participants with and without TB to test and validate the 15 gene TB signature of active TB in severely immunosuppressed TB-HIV participants prior to initiation of TB treatment or ART.